Adenoiditis is a common pathology in neonates and children, since the inflamed tissue disappears during adulthood. The most common cause of the disease is a bacterial infection.
Vegetations or adenoiditis in babies respond to a pathology that is characterized by an increase in the size of the adenoids(mass of lymphoid tissue close to the nostrils) with respect to the size of the nasopharynx, which causes nasal obstruction and various complications. According to pediatric sources, the general cause is an infectious episode.
Vegetations present very characteristic symptoms and are relatively common in children. Even so, knowing when to go to the doctor and consider a possible treatment is essential in these cases. Therefore, here we tell you everything you need to know about adenoiditis in babies.
Who suffers the vegetations?
Before going fully into the subject, we are going to describe the population group most likely to suffer from this condition. Various medical reviews provide us with certain information. We tell you about them below:
- The prevalence of vegetations or adenoiditis in infants is difficult to quantify, as it is usually associated with other clinical conditions, such as rhinosinusitis.
- The highest morbidity(probability of onset of the disease), according to scientific studies, is between one year and nine years of age.
- Adenoid tissue begins to atrophy from ages 6 to 7 and continues to decrease in size during puberty. Therefore, it is a characteristic disease of babies and children.
As we have seen, we are facing a pathology biased by the age of the patient. Faced with symptoms of nasal obstruction in an adult, adenoiditis is not considered as one of the primary causes.
What is adenoiditis?
As we have already said, this pathology corresponds to a swelling of the adenoid tissue, a patch just behind the nose that is part of the lymphatic system. This structure reacts to infections, trapping germs and bacteria so that they do not enter the upper respiratory tract.
Adenoids are functional in babies and children, but according to previously cited sources, they reach a maximum size at seven years. From there they begin to decline to the point of being almost absent in adulthood. This is because, with age, people develop new immune mechanisms.
It is necessary to highlight the difference between acute and chronic adenoiditis, although this concept does not seem to be standardized by all bibliographic sources. Adenoid tissue can become temporarily inflamed in the event of an infectious episode, which is to be expected, but if the adenoids become infected, the clinical picture can become chronic.
The National Library of Medicine of the United States states that infections are usually the most common cause of acute adenoiditis, although allergic processes or irritation due to stomach acidosis can play an important role in its appearance. The bacteria most associated with this clinical picture are the following:
- Haemophilus influenza.
- Streptococcus pneumoniae.
- Streptococcus pyogenes.
- Staphylococcus aureus.
Finally, it should be noted that repeated adenoiditis leads to adenoid hypertrophy. In this case, surgical removal of the tissue may be required, since after infection it will not decrease in size.
Symptoms of Adenoiditis in Babies
Pediatric portals, such as Kids health, collect the symptoms of the disease in both infants and babies. Some of the most common signs are the following:
- Dry mouth and bad breath.
- Chapped lips.
- Discharge from the nose.
- Ear problems.
- Noisy breathing.
- Recurrent nasal or sinus infections.
All these symptoms derive from the inability of the newborn to breathe correctly. When inflamed, the tissue prevents the flow of air to the upper respiratory tract, so the baby resorts to breathing through the mouth.
What is the treatment for adenoiditis in babies?
The key to treating adenoiditis or vegetations in babies is to watch and wait. It is useless to administer antibiotics to a newborn who has an allergic reaction, so taking the initiative and diagnosing the patient on our own is always outside the framework of action. The pediatrician can take several measures:
- Before infections of a viral nature, no type of treatment is usually required. This type of upper respiratory tract disease usually resolves itself after 5 to 7 days, according to what scientific sources indicate.
- In the case of bacterial infections, you can resort to the use of antibiotics. The amoxicillin is one of the most widely used drugs and often report an improvement in the symptoms of the patient in 48 to 72 hours.
- If an allergic reaction is suspected, steroid or antihistamine nasal sprays are the way to go.
- Faced with heartburn reflux, changes in the newborn’s diet and the advice of a pediatric nutritionist should be sufficient to alleviate symptoms.
Again, if the patient does not respond to treatment and continues with a respiratory disability that makes life difficult, an adenoidectomy may be resorted to, that is, the removal of the adenoids. Most infants do not have any risk associated with this surgical procedure.
Adenoiditis in Babies and the Role of the Pediatrician
Adenoiditis is a very common disease that is usually associated with other pathological processes of the upper respiratory tract. Faced with a baby with respiratory difficulties, halitosis, dry mouth, crying and continuous discomfort, a visit to the pediatrician is necessary for possible vegetations.
In addition, it should be noted that the episodes caused by bacterial infections also present the symptoms of these pathologies, that is, malaise and fever. Therefore, before any of these symptoms, a consultation with the doctor is essential.